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Brambell’s Five Freedoms

… The five freedoms, sometimes known as Brambell’s five freedoms, are a compact of rights for animals under human control, including those intended for food or which act as working animals. …

Source: Wikipedia

Freedom from hunger or thirst
by ready access to fresh water and a diet to maintain full health and vigour

Freedom from discomfort
by providing an appropriate environment including shelter and a comfortable resting area

Freedom from pain, injury or disease
by prevention or rapid diagnosis and treatment

Freedom to express (most) normal behaviour
by providing sufficient space, proper facilities and company of the animal’s own kind

Freedom from fear and distress
by ensuring conditions and treatment which avoid mental suffering

Francis William Rogers Brambell (25 February 1901 – 6 June 1970) was a British medical scientist.


Vom britischen Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC) wurde in den 80er Jahren das Konzept der „5 Freiheiten“ entwickelt. Es bildet die Grundlage für verschiedene Mess- und Bewertungssysteme für Tiergerechtheit.

Quelle: Wikipedia

Freiheit von Hunger und Durst:
Tiere haben Zugang zu frischem Wasser und gesundem und gehaltvollem Futter.

Freiheit von haltungsbedingten Beschwerden:
Tiere haben eine geeignete Unterbringung (z. B. einen Unterstand auf der Weide), adäquate Liegeflächen etc.

Freiheit von Schmerz, Verletzungen und Krankheiten:
Die Tiere werden durch vorbeugende Maßnahmen, bzw. schnelle Diagnose und Behandlung, Verzicht auf Amputationen (bzw. Betäubung) versorgt.

Freiheit von Angst und Stress:
Durch Verfahren und Management werden Angst und Stress vermieden z. B. durch Verzicht auf Treibhilfen.

Freiheit zum Ausleben normaler Verhaltensmuster:
Die Tiere haben die Möglichkeit das Normalverhalten auszuüben z. B. durch ausreichendes Platzangebot, Gruppenhaltung etc.

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Today in US History

Today, 7 December 2014, marks the 73rd commemoration day of the attack on Pearl Harbor

The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941 (December 8 in Japan). The attack led to the United States’ entry into World War II.

The attack was intended as a preventive action in order to keep the U.S. Pacific Fleet from interfering with military actions the Empire of Japan was planning in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States. There were simultaneous Japanese attacks on the U.S.-held Philippines and on the British Empire in Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong.

From the standpoint of the defenders, the attack commenced at 7:48 a.m. Hawaiian Time. The base was attacked by 353 Japanese fighter planes, bombers, and torpedo planes in two waves, launched from six aircraft carriers. All eight U.S. Navy battleships were damaged, with four being sunk. All but one (Arizona) were later raised, and six of the eight battleships were returned to service and went on to fight in the war. The Japanese also sank or damaged three cruisers, three destroyers, an anti-aircraft training ship, and one minelayer. 188 U.S. aircraft were destroyed; 2,403 Americans were killed and 1,178 others were wounded. Important base installations such as the power station, shipyard, maintenance, and fuel and torpedo storage facilities, as well as the submarine piers and headquarters building (also home of the intelligence section) were not attacked. Japanese losses were light: 29 aircraft and five midget submarines lost, and 65 servicemen killed or wounded. One Japanese sailor, Kazuo Sakamaki, was captured.

The attack came as a profound shock to the American people and led directly to the American entry into World War II in both the Pacific and European theaters. The following day, December 8, the United States declared war on Japan. Domestic support for non-interventionism, which had been strong, disappeared. Clandestine support of Britain (e.g., the Neutrality Patrol) was replaced by active alliance. Subsequent operations by the U.S. prompted Germany and Italy to declare war on the U.S. on December 11, which was reciprocated by the U.S. the same day.

Years later several writers alleged that parties high in the U.S. and British governments knew of the attack in advance and may have let it happen (or even encouraged it) with the aim of bringing America into war. However, this advance-knowledge conspiracy theory is rejected by mainstream historians.

There were numerous historical precedents for unannounced military action by Japan. However, the lack of any formal warning, particularly while negotiations were still apparently ongoing, led President Franklin D. Roosevelt to proclaim December 7, 1941, “a date which will live in infamy”. Because the attack happened without a declaration of war and without explicit warning, the attack on Pearl Harbor was judged by the Tokyo Trials to be a war crime.

Source: Wikipedia