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Advent Calendar: December 23

December 23 is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are eight days remaining until the end of the year.

Events

  • 962 – Byzantine-Arab Wars: Under the future Emperor Nicephorus Phocas, Byzantine troops stormed the city of Aleppo
  • 1493 – Georg Alt’s German translation of Hartmann Schedel’s Nuremberg Chronicle is published.
  • 1572 – Theologian Johann Sylvan executed in Heidelberg for his heretical Antitrinitarian beliefs
  • 1688 – As part of the Glorious Revolution, King James II of England flees England to Paris after being deposed in favour of his nephew, William of Orange and his daughter Mary.
  • 1783 – George Washington resigns as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army at the Maryland State House in Annapolis, Maryland.
  • 1793 – The Battle of Savenay, decisive defeat of the royalist counter-revolutionaries in Revolt in the Vendée during the French Revolution.
  • 1823 – A Visit from St. Nicholas, also known as The Night Before Christmas, is published anonymously.
  • 1893 – The opera Hänsel und Gretel by Engelbert Humperdinck is first performed.
  • 1913 – The Federal Reserve Act is signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson, creating the Federal Reserve.
  • 1914 – World War I: Australian and New Zealand troops arrive in Cairo, Egypt.
  • 1916 – World War I: Battle of Magdhaba – Allied forces defeat Turkish forces in Egypt’s Sinai peninsula.
  • 1919 – Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act 1919 becomes law in the UK.
  • 1921 – Visva-Bharati University is inaugurated.
  • 1936 – Colombia becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.
  • 1937 – First flight of the Vickers Wellington bomber.
  • 1938 – Discovery of the first modern coelacanth in South Africa.
  • 1940 – World War II: Greek submarine Papanikolis (Υ-2) sinks the Italian motor ship Antonietta.
  • 1941 – World War II: After 15 days of fighting, the Japanese Imperial Army occupies Wake Island.
  • 1947 – The transistor is first demonstrated at Bell Laboratories.
  • 1948 – Seven Japanese convicted of war crimes by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East are executed at Sugamo Prison in Tokyo.
  • 1958 – Dedication of Tokyo Tower, the world’s highest self-supporting iron tower.
  • 1968 – The 82 sailors from the USS Pueblo are released after eleven months of internment in North Korea.
  • 1970 – The North Tower of the World Trade Center in Manhattan, New York City is topped out at 1,368 feet (417 m), making it the tallest building in the world.
  • 1972 – A 6.5 magnitude earthquake strikes the Nicaraguan capital of Managua killing more than 10,000.
  • 1972 – The 16 survivors of the Andes flight disaster are rescued after 73 days, having survived by cannibalism.
  • 1979 – Soviet war in Afghanistan: Soviet forces occupy Kabul, the Afghan capital.
  • 1982 – The United States Environmental Protection Agency announces it has identified dangerous levels of dioxin in the soil of Times Beach, Missouri.
  • 1986 – Voyager, piloted by Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager, lands at Edwards Air Force Base in California becoming the first aircraft to fly non-stop around the world without aerial or ground refueling.
  • 1990 – History of Slovenia: In a referendum, 88% of Slovenia’s population vote for independence from Yugoslavia.
  • 2002 – A MQ-1 Predator is shot down by an Iraqi MiG-25, making it the first time in history that an aircraft and an unmanned drone had engaged in combat.
  • 2003 – PetroChina Chuandongbei natural gas field explosion, Guoqiao, Kai County, Chongqing, China, killing at least 234.
  • 2005 – Chad declares a state of war against Sudan following a December 18 attack on Adré, which left about 100 people dead.

Origin: Wikipedia

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Advent Calendar: December 21

December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 10 days remaining until the end of the year. This is a frequent day for the winter solstice to occur in the northern hemisphere and summer solstice to occur in the southern hemisphere.

Events

  • 1140 – Conrad III of Germany besieged Weinsberg.
  • 1598 – Battle of Curalaba: The revolting Mapuche, led by cacique Pelentaru, inflict a major defeat on Spanish troops in southern Chile.
  • 1620 – Plymouth Colony: William Bradford and the Mayflower Pilgrims land on what is now known as Plymouth Rock in Plymouth, Massachusetts.
  • 1832 – Egyptian–Ottoman War: Egyptian forces decisively defeat Ottoman troops at the Battle of Konya.
  • 1844 – The Rochdale Pioneers commence business at their cooperative in Rochdale, England, starting the Cooperative movement.
  • 1861 – Medal of Honor: Public Resolution 82, containing a provision for a Navy Medal of Valor, is signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln.
  • 1872 – Challenger expedition: HMS Challenger, commanded by Captain George Nares, sails from Portsmouth.
  • 1879 – World première of Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House at the Royal Theatre in Copenhagen.
  • 1883 – The first Permanent Force cavalry and infantry regiments of the Canadian Army are formed: The Royal Canadian Dragoons and The Royal Canadian Regiment.
  • 1913 – Arthur Wynne’s “word-cross”, the first crossword puzzle, is published in the New York World.
  • 1937 – Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the world’s first full-length animated feature, premieres at the Carthay Circle Theater.
  • 1941 – World War II: A formal treaty of alliance between Thailand and Japan is signed in the presence of the Emerald Buddha in Wat Phra Kaew.
  • 1962 – Rondane National Park is established as Norway’s first national park.
  • 1967 – Louis Washkansky, the first man to undergo a heart transplant, dies in Cape Town, South Africa, after living for 18 days after the transplant.
  • 1968 – Apollo program: Apollo 8, the first manned mission to the moon, is launched from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The crew performs the first ever manned Trans Lunar Injection and become the first humans to leave Earth’s gravity.
  • 1969 – The Gay Activists Alliance is formed in New York City.
  • 1969 – The United Nations adopts the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination.
  • 1973 – The Geneva Conference on the Arab-Israeli conflict opens.
  • 1979 – Lancaster House Agreement: An independence agreement for Rhodesia is signed in London by Lord Carrington, Sir Ian Gilmour, Robert Mugabe, Joshua Nkomo, Bishop Abel Muzorewa and S.C. Mundawarara.
  • 1988 – A bomb explodes on board Pan Am flight 103 over Lockerbie, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, killing 270.
  • 1992 – A Dutch DC-10, flight Martinair MP 495, crashes at Faro Airport, killing 56 people.
  • 1994 – Mexican volcano Popocatepetl, dormant for 47 years, erupts gases and ash.
  • 1995 – The city of Bethlehem passes from Israeli to Palestinian control.
  • 1999 – The Spanish Civil Guard intercepts a van loaded with 950 kg of explosives that ETA intended to use to blow up Torre Picasso in Madrid.
  • 2004 – Iraq War: A suicide bomber killed 22 at the forward operating base next to the main U.S. military airfield at Mosul, the single deadliest suicide attack on American soldiers.
  • 2009 – Northwest Airlines Flight 253 was almost bombed by Al Qaida but the bomber was later apprehended. It is also known as the Christmas Day bombing attempt.

Origin: Wikipedia

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Advent Calendar: December 19

December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 12 days remaining until the end of the year.

Events

  • 211 – Publius Septimius Geta, co-emperor of Rome, is lured to come without his bodyguards to meet his brother Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (Caracalla), to discuss a possible reconciliation. When he arrives the Praetorian Guard murders him and he dies in the arms of his mother Julia Domna.
  • 324 – Licinius abdicates his position as Roman Emperor.
  • 1154 – Henry II of England is crowned at Westminster Abbey.
  • 1490 – Anne, Duchess of Brittany, is married to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor by proxy.
  • 1606 – The Susan Constant, the Godspeed, and the Discovery depart England carrying settlers who found, at Jamestown, Virginia, the first of the thirteen colonies that became the United States.
  • 1776 – Thomas Paine publishes one of a series of pamphlets in the Pennsylvania Journal titled The American Crisis.
  • 1777 – American Revolutionary War: George Washington’s Continental Army goes into winter quarters at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania.
  • 1796 – French Revolutionary Wars: Two British frigates under Commodore Horatio Nelson and two Spanish frigates under Commodore Don Jacobo Stuart engage in battle off the coast of Murcia.
  • 1828 – Nullification Crisis: Vice President of the United States John C. Calhoun pens the South Carolina Exposition and Protest, protesting the Tariff of 1828.
  • 1900 – Hopetoun Blunder: The first Governor-General of Australia John Hope, 7th Earl of Hopetoun, appointed Sir William Lyne as premier of the new state New South Wales, but he is unable to persuade other colonial politicians to join his government and is forced to resign.
  • 1907 – A group of 239 coal miners die during a mine explosion in Jacobs Creek, Pennsylvania.
  • 1912 – William H. Van Schaick, captain of the steamship General Slocum which caught fire and killed over 1,000 people, is pardoned by U.S. President William Howard Taft after three-and-a-half-years in Sing Sing prison.
  • 1916 – World War I: Battle of Verdun – On the Western Front, the French Army successfully holds off the German Army and drives it back to its starting position.
  • 1920 – King Constantine I is restored as King of the Hellenes after the death of his son Alexander I of Greece and a plebiscite.
  • 1924 – The last Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost is sold in London, England.
  • 1927 – Three Indian revolutionaries viz. Ram Prasad Bismil, Roshan Singh and Ashfaqulla Khan were executed by the British government.
  • 1932 – BBC World Service begins broadcasting as the BBC Empire Service
  • 1941 – World War II: Adolf Hitler becomes Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the German Army.
  • 1941 – World War II: Limpet mines placed by Italian divers sink the HMS Valiant (1914) and HMS Queen Elizabeth (1913) in Alexandria harbour.
  • 1946 – Start of the First Indochina War.
  • 1956 – Irish-born physician John Bodkin Adams is arrested in connection with the suspicious deaths of more than 160 patients. Eventually he is convicted only of minor charges.
  • 1961 – India annexes Daman and Diu, part of Portuguese India.
  • 1963 – Zanzibar gains independence from the United Kingdom as a constitutional monarchy, under Sultan Jamshid bin Abdullah.
  • 1964 – The South Vietnamese military junta of Nguyen Khanh dissolved the High National Council and arrested some of the members.
  • 1967 – Prime Minister of Australia Harold Holt is officially presumed dead.
  • 1972 – Apollo program: The last manned lunar flight, Apollo 17, crewed by Eugene Cernan, Ron Evans and Harrison Schmitt, returns to Earth.
  • 1975 – John Paul Stevens is appointed a justice of The United States Supreme Court.
  • 1981 – Sixteen lives are lost when the Penlee lifeboat goes to the aid of the stricken coaster Union Star in heavy seas.
  • 1983 – The original FIFA World Cup trophy, the Jules Rimet Trophy, is stolen from the headquarters of the Brazilian Football Confederation in Rio de Janeiro.
  • 1984 – The Sino-British Joint Declaration, stating that the People’s Republic of China would resume the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong and the United Kingdom would restore Hong Kong to China with effect from July 1, 1997 is signed in Beijing by Deng Xiaoping and Margaret Thatcher.
  • 1986 – Mikhail Gorbachev, leader of the Soviet Union, releases Andrei Sakharov and his wife from internal exile in Gorky.
  • 1995 – The United States Government restores federal recognition to the Nottawaseppi Huron Band of Potawatomi Indian tribe.
  • 1997 – SilkAir Flight 185 crashes into the Musi River, near Palembang in Indonesia, killing 104.
  • 1998 – Lewinsky scandal: The United States House of Representatives forwards articles I and III of impeachment against President Bill Clinton to the Senate.
  • 2000 – The Leninist Guerrilla Units wing of the Communist Labour Party of Turkey/Leninist attack a Nationalist Movement Party office in Istanbul, killing one person and injuring three.
  • 2001 – A record high barometric pressure of 1085.6 hPa (32.06 inHg) is recorded at Tosontsengel, Khövsgöl Province, Mongolia.
  • 2001 – Argentine economic crisis: December 2001 riots – Riots erupt in Buenos Aires.

Origin: Wikipedia